公共论坛辩论术语 Public Forum Debate Terminology

Public Forum Debate Terminology

Provided by Global Academic Commons

Note: Public Forum debate has a lot of specialized terminology that can be difficult to directly translate., but we did our best here.


Add-on. An add-on is simply a new advantage (if you are Pro) or disadvantage (if you are Con) that is read in the Rebuttal. Rather than explicitly presenting a new advantage or disadvantage (since some judges won’t like that), most debaters will simply read it is a Turn to one of the original advantages or disadvantages.

Add-on(附加论据). 辩驳陈述环节中,双方提出的新论据。因为有些裁判不喜欢辩手在此环节提出新论据,所以大部分辩手不会将新论据清晰地进行陈述,而是附加在原有的论据中一并提出。

Advantage The advantage is one of the benefits the Pro claims from supporting the resolution.

Advantage (优势):有利于正方支持其论点的优势论据。

Advocate. To advocate something simply means to support it with an argument. For example, you may advocate going to the mall by making arguments in favor of going there.


Affirmative Sometimes debaters call the “Pro” the “Affirmative.”


Alternate causality. Alternate causality is simply an argument that says that there is another cause of the harm that the Pro seeks to solve for. For example, if the affirmative says that they save the economy by reducing taxes, the negative may say they do not solve because a housing crash will destroy the economy regardless.

Alternate Causality(交互因果关系):一种特定论据,阐述对手提出的某种现象其实另有原因。比如,如果正方说他们通过减税挽救了经济,那么反方则可以说减税并没有挽救经济,因为房地产崩盘将摧毁经济,无论何种方法也无法挽救。

Analytic. An analytic is an argument based off common sense or reasoning.

Analytic (解析论据):基于常识与推理得出的论据

Answer. An answer is simply a response to an argument.

Answer (答案):对某个论据的回应。

Apriori. An apriori claim is a claim that one team makes that they will say is more important than all of claims made by the other side. For example, an Pro team may argue that the judge has a moral obligation to support the resolution. They will argue that this moral obligation should hold even if the negative disadvantages are true.


Argument. Basically, an argument is a claim – an assertion – that is backed up by a warrant or warrants – reasons. There are many different types of arguments in debate that are discussed throughout this volume and in this vocabulary section.



Backflowing. After you give a Rebuttal speech you should give your partner a copy of your flow sheet so that he or she can fill in your arguments so that you have a flow of your own arguments. This is most important if you are the Rebuttal speaker because the Rebuttal speaker will need to reference arguments from the Rebuttal in his or her Final Focus.

Before the debate starts, both members of a team should each pro flow their team’s constructive in order that they can refer to it during the debate.


Ballot. The ballot is where the judge(s) record winner and loser, speaker points for each time, and a ranking of the speakers in the debate in order from 1 to 4. Many judges will write freestyle comments on the ballot (or type it into tabroom.com if online balloting is used).

Break. Most tournaments have preliminary debates and elimination rounds. If you win enough preliminary debates, you will break to elimination rounds. Each tournament participant will have the same number of preliminary rounds, but only a given number will advance to the elimination rounds.

For one day tournaments, there are no “break” rounds. Awards will simply be given to a certain top percentage of the finishers after a certain number of debates (usually three).



Block. A “block” is simply a list of arguments constructed on a sheet of paper that contain multiple arguments in support of an overall claim.


Brief A brief is a block.

Brief 同Block

Burden of proof. The burden of proof identifies whose responsibility it is to prove various arguments. The team advancing the argument is always the one responsible to prove various parts. For example, if the negative team presents a disadvantage, it is their responsibility to prove all parts of the disadvantage.

Burden of proof(举证责任):举证责任确定由谁来整体负责证明不同的论据。提出论据的队伍往往负责证明不同的部分。比如,如果反方队伍提出某个缺陷论据,那么他们负责证明为什么这个论据的方方面面都有缺陷。

Burden of rejoinder. The burden of rejoinder says that once a team advances an argument that it is the burden of the other team to respond to it. If the team doesn’t respond to it, it is considered to be won by the team that is advancing the argument.

Burden of rejoinder (反驳责任):一旦某个队伍提出一个论据,另外一支队伍必须进行回应。如果那个队伍没有回应,则可考虑提出论据的队伍获胜。


Canned. A canned speech is a speech that is prepared entirely before the start of the debate. In Public Forum, the first two speeches (the Constructives) are canned speeches.


Card. A card is simply a quote that teams read in a debate. These quotes are called cards because debaters used to bring their quotes to tournaments on index cards.


Case. The case loosely refers to the contents of the Constructive speeches.


Cite/Citation. The citation is the source the evidence comes from. The citation includes the author’s name, the source, the title (if different than the source), the page number of URL, the year, and the date.


Claim. A claim is simply an assertion made by another team. They may claim, for example, that an economic decline will trigger a war.


Contention The Constructive speeches are often organized into contentions. Most Constructive speeches usually have two contentions, but they can have one or more contentions..”


Context. Context is about whether or not the quote presented in the debate actually reflects the proper context of the article that it is taken from. An important context question is would the author of the original piece support the use of the quote in the way the debaters have used it.


Context Challenge. A context challenge is an argument made in the debate that says that the debaters are not using the quote that they have presented in its appropriate context. Context challenges are rare because they are considered a question of ethics.

Context Challenge(情境质疑):对方辩手质疑某个引用并不符合特定的情境。情境质疑比较少见,因为涉及到一系列伦理道德。

Cost-benefit analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is real-world terminology for the language of net-benefits. Simply, is the advocacy cost-beneficial

Cost-benefit analysis(成本效益分析):简而言之,付出成本与收获的配比分析。

Counterplan. A counterplan is an alternative plan to the Pro advocacy that is advanced by the Con. Sometimes debaters get away with counterplans in Public Forum, but most judges think counterplans should not be run PUblic Forum (and they are often explicitly prohibited by the rules).


Cross-fires. There are questioning periods during the debate. Cross-fires follow each of the Constructive speeches, the Rebuttal speeches, and the Summary speeches.



Debate theory. In most areas of the country there are no specific rules governing the debate other than the time limits. Debate theory is about making arguments over what arguments and argumentative practices should be acceptable in modern debate. Theory is not common in Public Forum, but sometimes debaters argue it.

Debate Theory(辩论理论):大多数地区并没有特定的规则(除了时间限制)来管理辩论。辩论理论大多是关于如何使用论据、现代辩论体系应接受何种实践等。这种理论在公共论坛辩论中并不常见,但辩手们有时会对此进行争论。

Defensive arguments. Defensive arguments refute the basic claim made by the other side by saying that they are not true. For example, if one said argues that economic decline causes a war and you argue that economic decline does not cause a war, you have made a defensive argument.

Defensive arguments(防守论据):防守型论据主要用来反驳对手的论点,指出其论点不正确。比如,如果你的对手说经济衰退导致战争,而你反驳经济衰退并不会导致战争,这时你就需要提供防守型论据来支撑你的观点。

Disadvantage. A disadvantage proves that resolution is undesirable. If the resolution is, “Resolved; The United States should deploy missile defense,” a disadvantage would be a reason that deploying missile defense is a bad idea.

Disadvantage (不利论点):不利条件指某个论点非常令人不悦。比如,如果一个论点是美国应该部署导弹防御系统,那么不利论点则是部署导弹防御系统是个糟糕的主意。

Drop. A dropped argument is any argument that is not responded to by your opponent in his or her next speech.



Empirical evidence. Empirical evidence is evidence cited in a debate that is supported by a study. The evidence doesn’t just rely on the opinion of an expert, on proven support. It also is a reference to something happening in the past that supports the argument being made.

Empirical evidence(实验性论据):被学术研究所论证过的论据。这种论据并非仅仅来源于某个专家的观点,它还必须证明过已经发生的事情并且能够支撑论点。

Empirical solvency. Empirical solvency is solvency evidence that references an example of the success of the plan in the past. For example, if the plan worked in Florida it can be used to prove that it is likely to work nation-wide.

Empirical solvency(实验性执行力):这种论据能够证明过去的某个计划成功实施。比如,某个计划在佛罗里达州成功实施,那么它有可能在全国范围内也会获得成功。

Empirically denied. Empirically denied means that history has denied the argument. For example, in response to a spending disadvantage, the affirmative may argue that we have spent a lot of money in the past but the economy hasn’t collapsed.

Empirically denied(实验性否定):表示历史已经证明某个论据不可行。比如,为了回应消费劣势这一观点,正方可以说我们过去已经花过很多钱但是经济并没有因此崩溃。

Embedded refutation. Teams usually respond to individual arguments made in debate on a point-by-point basis. Embedded refutation, however, is an advanced technique that is used in rebuttals where a team incorporates a reference to the other side’s argument when answering. Embedded refutation is an advanced technique that requires skill and practice in answering particular arguments.

Embedded refutation (嵌入式驳斥):一般来说,辩手倾向于逐点驳斥某个论据。嵌入式驳斥则是另一种高级的形式,辩手将论据进行合并后进行整体驳斥。这项高级技能要求辩手们具备娴熟的技巧与充分的实践。

Extend. Extending an argument basically refers to keeping the argument alive in later speeches rather than kicking it.   Extension includes refutation of the arguments made against it.

Extend (延伸):论据延伸是指将论据在稍后的发言中进行拓展,包括反驳对手针对这个论据的观点。

Evidence. In debate, evidence refers to quotes debaters introduce to support their arguments.

Evidence (论据):在辩论中,论据为辩手用来支撑自己论点的证据。


Final Focus. The Final Focus speeches are the final two minute speeches of the debate. Each side (Pro and Con) has one Final Focus speech.

Final Focus (总结陈词):每场比赛中最后两分钟的发言。正反方各有一次总结陈词的机会。

Flow A flow is what debaters use to take notes in a debate. Usually most people take notes vertically – in an outline form. In debate you take notes horizontally – noting the arguments and the responses to them across the course of the debate. Flowing is a fundamental and absolutely essential skill if you want to be a good debater.

Flow (笔记):辩手在辩论中做的笔记。大多数人爱用大纲形式垂直型做笔记。但在辩论中,水平型笔记更易于使用—标记出对手的论据与回应。巧记笔记是一个好辩手基本并且非常重要的技能。

Framework. The framework is the explanation of how the judge should evaluate the debate. What is the most important issue? Saving lives? Acting ethically? Protecting whose interests?

Framework (框架):框架可以用来解释裁判如何评判某场辩论的好坏。比如:最重要的议题是什么?挽救生命?符合伦理?保护谁的权益?

Frontline. A frontline is a set of arguments that are designed to answer a general argument. Debaters write frontlines common advantages and disadvantages.



High-low. When deciding speaker awards, tournaments usually drop from considerations a debater’s highest speaker points and a debater’s lowest speaker points. High-low also refers to how debates are paired at a tournament. After the first two to four preset debates, most debates are paired high-low within brackets. What this means is that teams with identical records (say 2-2) will meet in future debates but those with the highest speaker points will debate those with the lowest speaker points.



Impact. The impact is similar to a harm, though the term is usually used in the context of the disadvantage. The impact is the final, end problem that results. For example, if the negative’s disadvantage argues that the affirmative’s advocacy undermines the economy, the impact is the final result – an economic decline may cause poverty, or even trigger a war.

Impact (影响):这里的影响常在不利的情境下使用,指由某个现象造成的最终的不良后果。比如,如果反方指出正方的观点将削弱经济,那么影响即指最终后果—经济衰退将造成贫穷,甚至引发战争。

Impact Calculus/Comparison. The impact calculus or comparison is simply how one side compares impacts — which one is larger? Which one happens first (time-frame)? Which one is more ethically significant?

Impact Calculus/Comparison(影响比较):简而言之,某一方对事件的影响进行评估比较—哪一种影响力更广?哪种影响最先发生?哪种影响更有伦理意义?

Impact defense. Impact defense consists of impact take-outs.

Impact defense(影响防御):同下文impact take-out。

Impact non-unique. An impact non-uniqueness argument says that the impact to the disadvantage is already happening – that the economy is in a downturn now, that there is widespread poverty now, or that the war that the affirmative says will happen in already occurring.

Impact non-unique(非独特性影响):非独特性影响指某件事情的不良影响已经发生了—比如经济已经低迷了,贫穷现已蔓延,或者对方提到的某个战争已经爆发。

Impact take-out. An impact take-out says that the impact is false. For example, if you argue that an economic decline doesn’t cause a war you are taking out their impact claim that an economic decline causes a war.

Impact take-out(错误影响):即某出论证的影响是不正确的。比如,如果你指出经济衰退并未造成战争,你即说明对方的论证“经济衰退造成战争”的影响是错误的。

Impact turn. An impact turn says that not only is the final impact not bad, it is good. For example, if you argue that an economic decline is good because it will protect our environment, you are arguing an impact turn.

Impact turn (影响转折):影响转折指之前提到过的某种事件的最终影响并非是不良影响,反而是有好处的。比如,如果你指出经济衰退其实存在好处因为它可以促进环境保护,那么你在这里就提出了一个转折性影响。

Interpretation. Debaters will offer an “interpretation” of certain terms of the resolution — how they believe the terms of the resolution should be defined/interpreted. These definitions/meanings can be debated by both sides, but that is the general idea.


Internal link The internal link connects one link to another link, or one link to an impact. It is often discussed in the context of disadvantages, but all arguments have internal links. For example, if the Con argues that what the Pro is is advocating will cause a recession, that recession causes a depression, and a depression causes a war, the internal link is the argument that a recession will cause a depression.

Internal link (内部连接):内部连接指连接之间环环相扣,或某个连接导致一种影响。这个现象经常在不利情境下进行讨论,但是所有论据都存在内部连接。比如,如果反方认为正方的观点将造成经济衰退,经济衰退造成经济萧条,经济萧条造成战争;那么内部连接即指经济衰退将造成经济萧条。

Internal link turn Just as you can turn an link and turn an impact, you can turn an internal link by arguing that the opposite of the internal link is true. For example, if the internal link is “recession causes a depression,” an internal link turn is that a recession stops a depression.

Internal link turn (内部连接转折):转折指上文所述内部连接是不正确的并且对此进行举证。比如,如果内部连接是“经济衰退造成萧条”,那么其转折则是“经济衰退可以阻止萧条”。


Judge The judge is the person who decides the winner and loser of each debate. In

Judge (裁判):比赛中判定胜负的人。

Judge paradigm. A judge paradigm is the paradigm that the judge uses to evaluate the debate.

Judge paradigm (裁定规则):裁判使用用来评判比赛的规则。

Judge philosophy. A judge philosophy is a written statement by a judge that establishes his or her preferences on various debate practices and theoretical issues.

Judge philosophy(裁判理念):裁判写下的书面陈述,阐述了他对于理论及不同辩论实践的判决理念与原则。


Linearity. Most teams who present disadvantages will argue that the affirmative will done something (like trigger price inflation) that will push us over the brink to complete economic ruin. All disadvantages do not have to be structured in this fashion, however. Disadvantages can also be argued as being linear – -that the affirmative plan causes some incremental harm, such as environmental destruction and that each increment of the harm is bad.


Line-by-Line. Line-by-line refers to going point-by-point through the flow of the other sides arguments and answering each one as you go.


Link. A link is generally discussed as part of a disadvantage. It is the part of the argument that ties the negative disadvantage to what the affirmative is arguing. For example, a link to a spending disadvantage argues that the affirmative plan will spend money.

Link (连接):辩论中,有时可以把不利论点的消极影响与对手的论据连接起来。比如,反方为了驳斥“花费太多造成的不利影响”,可以指出正方的做法也将花费大笔资金。这就是一种连接的形式。

Link defense. Link defense is an argument or set of arguments that establishes why the link is false.

Link defense (连接驳斥):一系列论据用以说明为什么上述连接是错误的。

Link non-unique. A link non-uniqueness argument attacks the uniqueness of the link. For example, a link-uniqueness argument against a spending disadvantage argues that the government is spending money now.

Link non-unique(非独特性连接):某个论据不具备独特性。比如,想要攻击对方过度花费的不利影响,反而说明自己也在花钱,这就是一个非独特性连接。

Link take-out. A link take-out argues that the link is false. For example, if the Pro argued a tax increase would not cause a recession, that is a link take-out.

Link take-out(错误连接):上述连接是错误的,比如,正方辩驳“增税不会导致经济衰退”,则这个称为错误链接。

Link turn. A link turn argues that the opposite of the link is true. If a disadvantage claims that a tax increase will hurt the economy, a link turn would be that a tax increase helps the economy.

Link turn (连接转折):连接转折指某个连接的反面才是正确的。如果一方论点是“增税对经济发展有害”,那么其连接转折就是“增税对经济发展有益”。


Negative. Sometimes people refer to the Con team as the Negative team.


New arguments. New arguments are arguments made in the debate that are made after the team had a speech to answer the arguments. For example, if you don’t address an argument made in Constructive speeches until either Summary or Final Focus, your answers will be considered to be new.

New arguments(新论据):在立论陈述发言、回应对手论据之后才提出的论据称为新论据。比如,如果你没有在立论陈述部分提出某个论据,而是在小结或者总结陈词部分才提出,则此论据新论据。

Non-topical. If the Pro advocacy does not fit within the bounds of the resolution, it is deemed to be non-topical.


Non-unique. A non-unique argument that says a particular impact will occur regardless as to whether or not a particular advocacy is supported.



Observation. Sometimes Contentions are called Observations.


Offensive arguments.   If someone tells you to make an offensive argument, you may think that he or she is telling you to be rude. This is not the case, however. An offensive argument simply refers to a turn – a link turn, an internal link turn, or an impact turn. It can also be an advantage or a disadvantage.

Offensive arguments(冒犯型论据):如果有人让你提出一个冒犯型论据,你可能会认为他/她让你变得粗鲁。但事实却不是这样,冒犯型论据简而言之是指转折-连接转折、内部连接转折或影响转折。这个论据可以是正面或者反面的观点。

Overview. An overview is a general explanation of a major argument in that occurs before you begin answering the line-by-line argument(s) that the other side has made.



Pairing. The pairing is the sheet that is released by the tab room before the start of each debate. The pairing identifies your team, the team you are debating, the room where the debate will occur, and who the judge(s) of the debate.

Pairing (对垒表):每轮比赛开始之前由信息中心发出的对垒表,上面表明了你的队伍编号、对垒队伍、房间号、裁判名字等信息。

Paradigm. A paradigm is a way of seeing the world. In debate, judges have different paradigms – or ways of seeing the debate. If you are unsure of how to debate, you may be able to Google your judge online and find their “paradigm.”

Paradigm (评判标准):不同的裁判对于辩论有不同的评判标准。如果你不确定在辩论赛时如何表现,你可以搜索一下裁判名字,找到他个人倾向的评判标准。

Partner. In Public Forum you debate with a partner – it’s two people vs. two people.


Plan In Policy Debate, the plan is the Affirmative’s basic statement of how they believe things should be changed. Plans are not accepted in Public Forum. In Public Forum, debaters argue for or against the overall resolution

Plan (计划):在政策性辩论中,正方关于“本事情应该如何发展、变化”的阐述称之为计划。公共论坛辩论不接受这种方式,辩手们只需要针对辩题进行正反方面的辩论即可。

Power-match. After a set-number of preliminary debates, the tournament is matched (also known as “power-pairing”) so that teams with the same records debate each other.


Power-pairing. See power-match.


Power-protect. After a set-number of preliminary debates, the tournament is power-matched so that teams with identical records debate each other. Power protect refers to protecting the best teams within those matches so that the teams with the best speaker points in with a given record debate the teams with the worst speaker points who have the same record.


Pull-down. After a set-number of preliminary debates, the tournament is power-matched so that teams with identical records debate each other. If there are an odd number of teams with a given record, a team will have to be “pulled-down” to debate a team with a lesser record.


Pull-up. After a set-number of preliminary debates, the tournament is power-matched so that teams with identical records debate each other. If there are an odd number of teams with a given record, a team will have to be “pulled-up” to debate a team with a stronger record.


Pre-round prep. Pre-round prep is all the time that you have to prepare prior to the start of any given debate to prepare.

Pre-round prep(赛前准备):任何一场辩论赛开始之前的准备工作。

Preliminary rounds. Most debate tournaments have both preliminary rounds and elimination rounds. In the preliminary rounds each two person team is assigned a number of affirmative and negative debates (say three of each). After the preliminary debates are complete, debaters in the top four to thirty two teams (depending on the size of the tournament) are selected to participation in elimination rounds.

Preliminary rounds(预选赛):大多数比赛都由预选赛与淘汰赛组成。所有辩手都必须参加一定轮数的预选赛,然后根据预选赛成绩选出前4名至前32名的队伍晋级淘汰赛(根据比赛人员数量进行一定比例分配)。

Prep time. Prep time is the total amount of shared time allotted within a debate to you and your partner so that you can prepare your speeches. In Public Forum, the standard allotment is two minutes.

Prep time (准备时间):比赛过程中选手用来准备发言的时间。公共论坛辩论中,每队选手有最多两分钟的准备时间,可以拆分成不同时间段进行使用。

Press. A press is any argument made against a piece of evidence. You may, for example, press your opponent’s evidence by arguing that the evidence doesn’t really say what your opponent says.


Probability Probability refers to how likely something is. It is an important means of risk analysis. For example, if you argue that the affirmative plan will destroy the economy, you need to argue how probable that is. As you will learn in debate, almost anything is possible. The question is how probable is it?


Procedural A procedural is a debate theory argument that argues that that some specific argument advanced by the other side should not be allowed, and often it will at least be asserted that the procedural objection is a reason to vote against the other side.




Ranks. In each debate the judge rates the debaters 1-4. This rating number is your rank in a particular debate. A 1 is the best rank and a 4 is the lowest rank.



Rebuttal. In Public Forum, the Rebuttal speeches follow the Constructive speeches. In the Rebuttal, teams must refute the arguments made by the other teams in the Constructive speeches.


Record. Your record is the total number of wins and losses that you have at any point in a tournament. For example, if you have two wins and one loss, your record is 2-1.


Resolution The resolution is the chosen subject for debates. Pro teams will support it, and Con teams will argue against it.


RFD/Reason for decision. This is the judge’s reason for decision in the debate.

RFD/Reason for decision(投票理由):裁判对于比赛结果判定的原因。

Risk analysis Risk analysis involves assessing risks of the costs and benefits of a given proposal. The central elements of risk analysis are the impact, the probability, and the time-frame.

Risk Analysis(风险分析):风险分析指分析某个提议的成本与收益方面潜在的风险。风险分析的核心是其影响、可能性与时间表。

Roadmap. The road map is the identification of the order you will address the major positions in the debate. Some judges allow you to give an “off time” road map before your start your speech.


Round. A round is a single debate that occurs during the course of a tournament.


Round overview. A round overview is a global overview of the entire debate that is often advanced by one of the final two rebutallists. Some judges appreciate round overviews and others think that they are a waste of previous speech time.

Round overview(前文回顾):最后辩驳陈词环节发言的选手有时候会将前文提到的主要论据再回顾一下。有些裁判喜欢这种方式,有些裁判觉得这种做法是在浪费发言时间。


Scenario A scenario is a chain of events that results in a given impact. For example, you a team may argue that if U.S. global leadership declines China will invade Taiwan, triggering a war throughout Asia.


Sign posting. Sign-posting is using the flow to go point by point through your opponent’s arguments. When you reference what specific arguments you are answering, and on what flow, you are sign-posting for the judge so that he or she can put your answers in the right place.

Sign posting(树立标志):树立标志指参照笔记,逐条检查对手的论据。当你指出你正在回答哪个论据、根据哪条笔记的时候,你就在为裁判树立标志,裁判可以把你的回应放在恰当的位置。

Solvency Solvency is the basic idea that what a side is arguing for will work. For example, if the Pro is arguing for missile defense, they would establish that the missile defense system can shoot down missiles — that is Solvency.


Solvency advocate. A solvency advocate is someone who supports the solvency.

Solvency advocate(可行性支持人):支持上述可行性的人,可以付诸实践。

Solvency turn. A solvency turn is a negative argument that says that instead of solving the advocacy will actually increase the harm that they attempt to solve. For example, Con teams may argue that missile defense encourages countries to build more missiles.

Solvency turn(可行性转折):上文所述可行性非但无法解决问题,还会造成反作用。比如,反方队伍可以指出导弹防御系统可能会鼓励一些国家制造更多的导弹。

Speaker award. The person with the greatest speaker point totals at the end of a tournament is the tournament’s top speaker and receives a speaker award. The person with the second highest total speaker points is the second speaker. Usual ten to twenty speaker awards are given.

Speaker award(辩手个人奖):整场比赛结束后个人得分最高的选手将获得最佳辩手,第二名获得个人辩手第二名,一般每场比赛根据参赛人数分配10-20名个人奖得主。

Speaker points. In every debate a judge assigns speaker points to each debater. Speaker points are rather subjective.

Speaker points(个人得分):每场比赛,裁判都会给辩手打个人分,这个分数很主观。

Spread. To “spread” in a debate simply means to talk as quickly as possible. It is generally discouraged in Public Forum debate.


Squad. In this text, the squad refers to everyone from your school’s debate program. Sometime this is also called the debate “team,” though the word “team” in this text refers to a two person team – you and your partner.


Status quo/squo The “status quo” is Latin for “the present system.”

Status quo/squo(现状):拉丁文,指现状。

Strategy. A strategy is a means of achieving a specific goal. Debaters often loosely use the word strategy to simply reference what arguments they are going to run in the debate. But, strategy refers to more than that – it refers to a consideration to how that package of arguments will advance throughout the debate to secure victory.


Summary. The Summary Speeches are the third set of speeches in the debate. The speeches are two minutes long.



Tab room. The tab room is where the pairings for the tournament are produced and the results are calculated.

Tab room(信息中心):发布比赛对垒、计算比赛分数、出具比赛结果的房间。

Tabula Rasa Tabula rasa is Latin for “blank slate.” Generally, debaters wish judges to be “tabula rasa – or “tab” for short. They want the judge to leave as many predispositions as possible at home and judge the debate solely based on the arguments made by the debaters.

Tabula Rasa (留白):拉丁语白板的意思。一般来说,辩手希望裁判可以清空他们对于辩题先入为主的认知、常识等,用留白的状态来裁比赛,即仅仅根据辩手们的论据与逻辑来判定比赛胜负。

Tag. The tag is the brief statement that precedes the card that is a basic summary of the card.


Take-out. A take-out is a strictly defensive argument that refutes the claim made by the other side. For example, if your opponent claims that economic decline causes a war and you say that economic decline doesn’t cause a war, then you have made a take-out.


Team. In this text, a debate team refers to two individuals – you and your partner. People often refer to the “debate team” as the squad.


Theory. See “debate theory.”

Theory (同上文 辩论理论)

Top heavy Top heavy refers to the notion that debaters spend a lot of time giving overviews for their arguments and strongly answering the first few arguments that their opposition makes while ignoring – or at least poorly answering – many of the arguments at the bottom of the flow.

Top heavy(头重脚轻):指辩手花过多时间回顾前文,回应最初提出的论据,而忽视了后提出的论据。

Topical. The Pro’s advocacy is Topical if it fits within the bounds of the resolution.

Topical (论题):与辩题相契合的正方观点。

Threshold A threshold argument is similar to a brink argument. When presenting a disadvantage, negatives will argue that the economic decline triggered by plan will push us over the threshold to economic decline.


Time frame The time-frame refers to how quickly the impact scenario that is isolated by one of the teams will happen. Both teams will usually at least assert that the time-frame for their impact happens quickly and will argue that the judge should give it primary consideration for that reason.

Time frame(时间范围):主要阐述双方提出的情境及其影响在什么时间内能够实现。双方队伍都可能指出这些影响将很快发生,进而要求裁判优先考虑他们的主张。

Topicality Topicality is a negative argument that essentially contends that the Affirmative team’s advocacy is outside the bounds of the resolution.


Tournament. The tournament is the place where debates occur. All tournaments have a given number of preliminary debates where everyone participates and then elimination rounds where two person teams debate until the last one is undefeated.


Turn When you turn an argument you say they opposite. If the other side argues you spend money, and you argue you save money, you are turning their argument. There are three types of turns – link turns, internal link turns, and impact turns. Be careful not to double-turn yourself.

Turn (转折):反转某个论据。比如对手说你花钱,你说你省钱,这就是一个论据反转。一共有三种转折形式:连接转折、内部连接转折、影响转折(见上文),需要注意不要把自己套进去。


Underview. An underview is essentially an overview that is given at the end of the speech rather than the beginning. Underviews can help focus the judge, but arguments that are made in underviews are usually best advanced in overviews because that is when you have judge’s closest attention.


Uniqueness Uniqueness refers to the idea that the impacts will not occur as long as the Pro or Con advocacy is supported.


Update. Debaters are always pressed to read recent evidence in debates. An update is simply a new, more recent piece of evidence that replaces an older piece of evidence on the same argument.



Voting issue. Both teams can argue that any given issue is a voting issue – an issue that the judge should vote on before anything else.

Voting issue(投票争议): 裁判投票时机不对而带来的争议。


Warrant. A warrant is a reason that is given in support of a claim. For example: Claim – economic decline causes war. Warrant—World War II followed from a period of economic decline.